0:13

We can graph the height of the water. On the x-axis, I've plotted time in

seconds. And on the y-axis, I've plotted the

water's height in pixels. And here's the curve that I get.

Each of these little crosses is one of the measurements that I made at some given

time, I measured the height of the water and I get this curve.

What do you notice about this graph? So, one thing I notice right off the bat,

is that the water level increases fairly rapidly at first, but at the end of this

process, the water level is still increasing but it's increasing more

slowly. Of course, this makes sense since this

bowl is narrower at the bottom than it is at the top, and the water is coming in at

a constant rate. A bit more formally, alright, dv/dt, the

change in volume of water over time, that's constant.

I'm pouring in water at a constant rate, but dh/dt starts off very large, the

water's height is increasing very rapidly at first.

And by the end of this process, dh/dt is small.

So, I'd like a function that relates water height to volume.

Well, if I take a look at the side of the bowl, the bowl starts off fairly slanted,

and then sort of flattens out, and that's what I'm graphing here.

I'm graphing the radius of the bowl. On the x-axis, I'm plotting the height,

that's how far I am from the bottom of the bowl.

And as I move up the bowl, the radius of the bowl is increasing and that's what I'm

plotting on the y-axis. And if you look at the bowl, right, the

bottom of the bowl starts off very slanted and then it sort of flattens out.

And that's exactly what I'm representing here with, with this broken line, right?

The bowl starts off fairly slanted and then flattens out.

Once I know what the radius of the bowl is at a particular height, I can then think

about the volume of water when then water level is at some given height.

So, once I know the radius of the bowl at a particular height, from the bottom of

the bowl, I can then make a graph that shows the volume of water in the bowl,

given a particular height of water. So, here on the x-axis, I'm plotting the

height of the water. And on the y-axis, I'm plotting the volume

of water in the bowl. And you can see that when the water is

deeper, there's more water in the bowl. It's an increasing function.

Now, let's think a little bit about the slope of the tangent line to this graph.

The tangent line initially has not very large slope, compared to after a while,

the tangent line has a much higher slope. And what that really means is that

initially, for a given change in volume, there's quite a change in the height of

the water. But after a while, the same change in

volume leads to a less dramatic change in the height of the water.

That really makes sense from our original experience, we poured all that water into

the bowl. We think back to a graph of the water

level in the bowl. Here, I've got time.

Here, I've got the height of the water. The water is flowing in at a constant

changing volume per unit time. And initially, aIright, the slope of this

tangent line is quite high, because the water height is increasing very rapidly,

but after a while, because there's the same change in volume during this entire

process, the change in the water height is less dramatic, right?

It's the same amount of water coming in, but the water's moving up the sides of the

bowl less quickly.