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>> Alright? All of that being said.

Before we start understanding the terms of the cost of capital,

we need to define a little bit of notation.

so, where are we going with this?

First as we said before many people simply refer to these as the WACC.

And the WACC stands for the weighted average cost of capital.

Let me make a little parenthesis here.

And, and sort of make the point that more often than not, when in

finance we call an average of something, we typically mean a weighted average.

And weighted basically means, taking into account how much you're using of each.

So, if we were to take an average of debt and

equity, basically we would add up the two and we divide by two.

But if we were to actually take a weighted average, we would

take into account what proportions of debt and equity a company's using.

And as we'll see in section four, the company that we're dealing with is

using a lot of equity, and using very little of debt.

So we cannot really just take a crude average of the cost of debt and

the cost of equity, when a company may be using 98% equity and 2% debt.

So you know, if we were to take a straight average, that would be 0.5

the cost of debt, and 0.5 the cost of equity, that's not what we want to do.

We want to take into account how much,

of each source of financing the company is actually using.

That's why we call it the weighted average cost of capital, although some people

simply refer to this as the WACC, and some people just take out the word weighted and

refer to it as the cost of capital.

And that's mostly what we're going to do.

Most people don't use the word weighted, and

we assume we know that it's a weighted average cost of capital.

So, there are three ways, or

at least three ways of thinking about this cost of capital.

One, is from the point of view of investors.

Remember, investors are the ones that provide the capital, so

the company can invest to produce the goods and services that we like to buy.

And investors do not provide the capital for free.

Capital is scarce, they could provide the capital to other companies.

They could provide the capital to other investments.

And therefore whenever they provide capital to a company,

they're going to require a return.

And as always we say in finance,a return that is required is going to

be a function of the risk that you perceive that you're bearing.

So there's going to be, as we said in sessions one and

two, a positive relationship between risk and return.

The higher the ratio perceived in the capital you invest,

the higher the return that you're going to require.

So, one way of, of thinking about the the, the,

cost of capital is investors are providing debt, investors are providing equity.

They require a return on debt, they require a return on debt, on equity.

And the weighted average of those required returns is basically the cost of capital.

So, from the point of view of investors, the weighted average cost of capital is

simply the weighted average required return,

on the capital provided to the company,

that the company is going to use to make investment to produce goods and services.

Now we can actually sort of flip the coin.

And by flipping the coin,

we basically mean looking at this from the point of view of the company.

When the company raises that capital, they need to deliver a return.

Delivering a return does not necessarily mean paying in cash, and that's why,

as we said before, they cost of capital is related to risk, not so

much in terms of cash flows.

There are many companies that pay no dividends,

that doesn't mean that the providers of equity do not require any return.

They may require a return that is provided,

in terms of capital gains other than in terms of, of anything else.

Now, we can also look at the cost of capital, sort of by flipping the coin.

And, by flipping the coin,

I mean that we're going to look at this from the point of view of the company.

The company actually raises capital, and it needs to pay,

quote and quote every turn, it needs to deliver a return.

A return again doesn't mean, that the, the cash going out of the company,

you can actually invest in a company that doesn't pay any dividends,

that doesn't mean you're not going to require a return.

You deliver a return in terms of capital gains, that's why, as we said before,

always think of their required returns, as being a function of

raised not as being a function of money coming out of the company.

But when the company raises debt,

when the company raises equity, they basically need to deliver a return, and

that return that they need to deliver is the cost for the company.

Well, the weighted average of those costs,

is once again the weighted average cost of capital.

So the average return required by investors, and the average cost for

the company, these are like two sides of the same coin.

And three, the most important way of thinking about the cost of capital,

is as some people would call the hurdle rate.

And the hurdle rate is a minimum required return, on the company's investments.

Why is the cost of capital a hurdle rate?

For a very simple reason.

Suppose that through whatever sources of financing,

your average cost of raising funds is 5%.

Well, you don't want to invest in anything that gives you less than 5%,

otherwise you're basically burning money.

So that becomes,

that 5% becomes the minimum return on which you're going to invest and

you're not going to invest in anything from which you expect any less than that.

So if your cost of raising funds, on average is 5%.

You will be investing your capital in anything that you think,

you expect, that is going to give you more than 5%.

If you think that is going to give you less than 5%, you will

basically be investing in something in which you expect a negative return.

And no company actually can do that in the long term.

So, eventually you're going to go out of business.

So that is why the cost of capital is the minimum required return.

That is what it costs you to raise funds, and

basically you don't want to invest in anything.

That's going to give you a return less than what it

costs you to raise uh,those particular funds.

So those three definitions of the cost of capital are important, but

we're going to be using mostly the third,

that is that once we come up this number, this number becomes a beacon.

This number becomes a central decision variable for

the company, because you don't want to invest in anything that gives your return,

or from which you expect that return lower than that cost of capital.

And, that means that, you know, when we for example evaluate a project, well, when

we evaluate a project, and we calculate as we're going to see in session five.

The internal rate of return, basically the return we expect from the project.

We will not invest in anything, but

gives me from what we expect anything less than the cost of capital.

So one application, typical application of the cost of capital,

is project evaluation in some the models to value companies.

And one of those methods, one discounted cash flow method,

is called the weighted average cost of capital method.

And, guess what, the discount rate in that method is precisely the, cost of capital.

We're not going to get into valuation, but

we are going to discuss a project evaluation.

Value creation.

That we will discuss in our last session.

Why the cost of capital is so important for value creation?

Well, simply because the return that you

get on the capital invested must beat that cost of capital.

At the end of the day, our definition of whether you're creating or

destroying value, will go through comparing the return that you

get from the capital invested, from the cost of raising that particular capital.

So, we will talk about project evaluation.

We will talk about value creation.

And although we will not talk precisely or specifically, in one

section about capital structure, and in particular capital structure optimization.

I will make a few comments that have to do, with, capital structure once we

calculate the weighted averages cost of capital for stats

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