Okay, our next topic is beadwork design. The work we introduce here is a beady. Interactive beadwork design and construction. The problem here is that beadwork design. so, bead work is art of connecting beads together by wires. So, this is an example. So you have a 3D structure by connecting small pieces connected by a single wire. And construction is given, supplies given like this kind of two dimensional figure. So people are looking at this instruction and then put piece together one by one using a wire. And to design or construct- design and construction of this kind of 3D bead work is extremely difficult and hard. Suppose you have this kind of shape and then tries to, want to make this head bigger, or this arm longer. In order to do it you cannot insert a bead at arbitrary location. You know? This is very hard, complicated, hard, heavily constrained problem. So this is a problem we want to address. So how to design this shape and how to guide the user to construct the shape. And our approach is two ways. So one is an interactive and design, an interactive design and construction. So, a user designs this in- interesting bead work design shapes by gestural, simple gestural interaction, and then system automatically constructs appropriate beadwork structure and also system provides interactive guide to generate a physically construct, physical beadwork. And inside, we, the system applies a wire path planning algorithm to compute most efficient and also easy to create the wire path structure. So, let me show you a demo. Okay, here's our demonstration system, and modeling starts with the base shape. So you, we prepared a couple of base shapes, let's use this one. And then, after having this shape, you already have a simple shape. So here, the left one, so this one is a structure design mesh, called design mesh. So you work on this structure level to design a mesh. So this represents, basic core structure of a final bead work. On the right hand side is a simulation result. Result, or actual bead work model. So individual, shape is represent here. And then system shows what is generated from this design, to this, the real result. And we provide gesture operation. like click here, and then you add another primitive. And then you instantly get more structure. And the system is internally learning continuously simple physical simulation so that, that the resulting shape is always valid. And then we implemented a couple of simple gestures like this is extrusion, and then you'll get extruded shape. And Extrusion, and then extruded shape. And then you can collapse vertices, and then collapse vertices. And then you will get this shape. And then you can also split edge and then connect edge. So essentially, the user is editing the topology of the mesh, and then physical simulation automatically computes the geometry of the shape. Because what user can specify is just wire structure, connection between beads and the final shape is automatically defined by physics, by putting these beads together. And then you can also put this kind of shape. So in this way, you can generate reasonably interesting shape just by editing the topology with simple, very simple gesture operations. And then system computes the 3D shape. And then you'll get the wire structure. And then after that you can paint them. For example you put eyes here, and so. And then after having this character, the system computes the, you should press this Plan button. System automatically computes the wire path and then the system starts to giving instructions. So this, now this is an instruction. So, here you can see the total steps and then your current position. And then system also provides feedback about the lengths of the wires. And then this is the instruction. This says that, please put a single bead in a long wire here. And then press next and then system shows how to place next bead. Then next and next. So of course, construction is to be done manually by you. So you put beads one by one. And after each step, you press next and then system shows a visualized result. So yeah leveraging 3D graphics it's much more easy to associate current physical bead in your hand with the graphics on the screen. So the, watching this instruction, you put bead one by one, and then you will eventually get the final result. And let me show you a video. So, again, this is overview of the system. So, the system allows the user to generate model by simple gesture operations. And then the system provides construction guide. And then you will get the final bead work model, and then physical bead work. So, yeah, geometric modeling is a process I just demonstrated now. So let me skip these processes. So after that system shows a step by step construction guide like this one. So this is a situation of a real construction. So user puts beads one by one into the wire according to the instruction shown on the screen. And let me skip, the algorithm here now. And let me show you a couple of results. So yeah, we created a couple bead works, original designs. And traditionally, I think design of completely new bead work is so difficult so when you go, we actually visit couple of stores selling these bead works. But many, many stores sells exactly the same designs. And but here, you know, you can design your own things. So, this can be a very interesting gift for your friends. So, yeah, here's an example, like penguins or lizards or mouse or a teddy bear, so. So, let me briefly describe the core algorithm. So, here's a view. So this is your design mesh. So you design this polygonal mesh, using gestures. And then, after this design mesh, we convert this to a bead work model. The first step is like this. So each edge is actually a single bead. So originally we considered using vertices as the edge, but actually, you know, bead, it has a wire passing through. So it actually correspond to the edge. So edge becomes a bead. And then bead is connected by wire, to the neighboring beads, like this way. So, first step is convert single input, convert design polyhedron to a more complicated structure model. And then, next task is to put a wire seat. And then this wire is given as a Eulerian Circuit on this structure graph you know. Eulerian Circuit is visit individual how to say. In this case, visit individual edge, one by one. So, yeah, here's a brief overview computing wire paths. But, however, one problem is that arbitrary Eulerian cycle- Eulerian circuit, cycle is not stable. Stable is, this is a little bit difficult to explain but, suppose you have this structure. Yeah? You have five faces and then you have this red path go through and then blue path go through. And by connecting these in the final configuration, you will get the final stable shape. But in the, in the middle, while you are creating, you have, also, an intermediate shape. But in this intermediate shape, in all beads are moving around. It's very difficult to manually construct. So in order to be, make it easier to manually construct, the process should be like this. So individual, the wire should close one by one, visiting individual faces. So, in, whatever intermediate status, faces are closed one by one. So in order to do this. The system actually first computes a face strip, on the design mesh and then compute a wire, place wires along this face strip. And this face strip computation is given as a Hamiltonian path on the graph consisting of faces. So, yeah, this is a result of stripification, or computed Hamiltonian path. So, this path visits faces one by one, and then we then put wires, so that wires completes these faces in this order. So, yeah, that's it and the original paper was called Beady and published in 2012. And the step by step in- instruction used in our work, was inspired by a previous method designed for instructions, step by step for furniture, construction like this one. And also our method also contains a conversion of 3D, existing 3D mesh model to a simple bead work mesh. And this work is in, this part is related to mesh simplification. And then good one example paper is this one: Variational shape of approximation. So getting very detailed 3D mesh and these simplification methods return the very simplified mesh. And this may be interesting thing to learn. Thank you.