理想状态下的市场能够达到高效生产：将总剩余(total surplus)最大化。 但是在现实中的市场并非完美。在本课程中，我们将探索一系列市场存在着缺陷的情形并且理解为什么会出现这些缺陷；同时，我们会了解一些改进措施，比如反托拉斯(antitrust)政策以及其他一些政府的干预措施。 我们会选取日常中的例子——从我们每天购买和享用的货物和服务开始。我们也会在每周的练习里把理论运用到时下大事和政策研讨中。 所有的这些都会使你成为一个可以理解、分析和评价市场结果的，有学识的，有批判精神的思考者。

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来自 University of Pennsylvania 的课程

微观经济学：当市场“失灵”时

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理想状态下的市场能够达到高效生产：将总剩余(total surplus)最大化。 但是在现实中的市场并非完美。在本课程中，我们将探索一系列市场存在着缺陷的情形并且理解为什么会出现这些缺陷；同时，我们会了解一些改进措施，比如反托拉斯(antitrust)政策以及其他一些政府的干预措施。 我们会选取日常中的例子——从我们每天购买和享用的货物和服务开始。我们也会在每周的练习里把理论运用到时下大事和政策研讨中。 所有的这些都会使你成为一个可以理解、分析和评价市场结果的，有学识的，有批判精神的思考者。

从本节课中

Externalities + Public Goods

Two classic cases of market failure will be defined and explored: externalities and public goods. We will define each case, demonstrate why the market fails to provide the efficient outcome and suggest interventions through either marked design or regulation.

- Rebecca SteinSenior Lecturer

Economics

So let us now internalize the externality by setting a per unit tax

that exactly mimics the externality.

So we set equal to $15 per unit.

What we're doing is we're shifting up the supply curve

as it's perceived in the market.

So, our shifted up supply curve is 10 + 2Q + 15,

that's set at equal to the demand curve, and we can solve for a quantity of $15.

So, the amount that's exchanged in the market,

instead of the original quantity of $20, is now a quantity of $15.

When we want to go ahead and calculate surpluses,

we have to think about the price.

If you plug this quantity 15 into the demand curve,

you'll get that what the consumers are paying is $55 per unit.

And if you plug this quantity into the supply curve,

you'll see that what the producers are receiving Is equal to $40.

And of course the difference between the two is exactly that $15 of the tax.

Let's go ahead and calculate total surplus.

First of all, we have the consumers, consumer surplus is the area

underneath the demand curve and above the price that the consumers are paying.

So this is 15 times 15 divided by 2 which is a 112.5.

We can calculate producer surplus, it's the area underneath the price that they

are receiving and above the original supply curve, so it's this triangle here.

And it's 30 times 15 divided by 2, which is 225.

But of course, there's the cost of pollution, let's not forget that.

We're polluting less than before because we're only producing 15 units.

So the cost of pollution is 15 units times 15 per unit.

So it's this rectangle here 15 times 15 is equal to 225,

and just by chance in this case it's equal to the producer surplus.

But here we have the cost of pollution, but we're not quite done yet

because remember now we have a tax and the government is collecting the tax revenue.

And the tax revenues exactly equal to the marginal external costs,

because that's how we set the tax.

We set it equal to the marginal external cost, so

tax revenue is 15 times 15, so it's exactly the same rectangle.

225 so these two cancel each other out and

we get a total surplus that equals 337 and a half.

Not surprisingly, we found that with a tax the total surplus increased.

How could a tax make the total surplus grow?

Well that shouldn't surprise us,

we said that this quantity was the efficient quantity.

We said the market equilibrium was producing too much.

So by reducing the production, we actually make the total surplus bigger.

We can find this graphically as well.

For all the units between the efficient quantity and

the market equilibrium, for all the units here.

Their social marginal costs, exceeds the social marginal benefit.

So for each one of these units,

there's a little bit of dead weight loss that's being created.

And if you go ahead and you calculate this triangle here, this dead weight loss.

You'll get that it's exactly equal to the difference between the two.

The dead weight loss is going to equal $37.5 and

that's a numerical example.