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In the previous video, we learned how to take the joint screw axes S_1 to S_n, defined in

the space frame {s} when the robot is at the zero configuration, and transform them to

the n columns of the space Jacobian at any arbitrary joint configuration theta.

In this video, we construct the 6 by n body Jacobian J_b from the screw axes B_1 to B_n,

expressed in the end-effector frame {b}.

The body Jacobian transforms joint velocities to the body twist.

To derive the body Jacobian J_b, let's use the 5R arm from the previous video as an example.

To derive J_b, we need to define the end-effector frame {b}, but we don't need an {s} frame.

J_b has five columns, one for each joint, and in this video we will focus on J_b3, the

third column, corresponding to the end-effector twist when joint 3 moves with unit velocity.

First we set all joint angles equal to zero.

At this configuration, J_b3 is just B_3, the screw axis of joint 3 expressed in the {b}

frame when the arm is at its zero configuration.

Now we rotate joint 1.

Notice that this rotation of joint 1 does not change the relationship between joint

3 and the {b} frame, so J_b3 is still equal to B_3.

Now we rotate joint 2.

Again, the relationship between joint 3 and the {b} frame is unaffected by joint 2's motion,

so J_b3 is still equal to B_3.

Now we rotate joint 3.

As with joints 1 and 2, J_b3 is unaffected by joint 3's motion.

Now we rotate joint 4 by theta_4.

This motion changes the configuration of joint 3 relative to the {b} frame, so J_b3 changes.

We define the frame {b-double-prime} to be the {b} frame before joint 4 is rotated, and

the frame {b-prime} to be the {b} frame after joint 4 is rotated.

The relationship between the two is given by T_b-double-prime_b-prime equals e to the

bracket B_4 times theta_4.

We define the {b-double-prime} frame because the screw axis for joint 3 is just B_3 in

this frame.

Finally, we rotate joint 5 by theta_5, giving us the final end-effector frame {b}, obtained

by rotating the frame {b-prime} about the joint 5 screw axis by theta_5.

To find the {b} frame relative to the {b-double-prime} frame, we postmultiply T-b-double-prime-b-prime

by the body-frame transformation corresponding to rotation about the body screw axis B_5,

giving us the equation shown here.

What we really want, though, is the configuration of the {b-double-prime} frame relative to

the {b} frame, so we reverse the subscripts, which is the same as taking the inverse of

the transformation matrix.

Making use of the fact that the inverse of A times B, where A and B are invertible matrices,

is just B-inverse times A-inverse, we can rewrite T_b_b-double-prime in this form.

Since the screw axis of joint 3 is just B_3 in the {b-double-prime} frame, to find J_b3

we just need to use our rule for changing the frame of reference of a twist.

The final expression for the J_b3 column depends on the screw axis for joint 3 as well as the

joint angles and screw axes for joints 4 and 5.

The same reasoning applies for any joint, so we can generalize to this definition of

the body Jacobian J_b.

The last column of the body Jacobian is just the screw axis B_n when the robot is at its

zero configuration.

It does not depend on the joint positions, because no joint is between joint n and the

{b} frame.

Any other column i of the body Jacobian is given by the screw axis B_i premultiplied

by the transformation that expresses the screw axis in the {b} frame for arbitrary joint

positions.

You can see that J_b1 depends on the positions of joints 2 through n, J_b2 depends on the

positions of joints 3 through n, etcetera.

You can also see that the body Jacobian is independent of the choice of the space frame

{s}.

Since each column of a Jacobian is a twist, we can use our rule for representing a twist

in a different frame to translate between the space Jacobian J_s and the body Jacobian

J_b.

J_b is obtained from J_s by the matrix adjoint of T_bs, and J_s is obtained from J_b by the

matrix adjoint of T_sb.

In the next video we will see that the Jacobian is used not only to convert joint velocities

to end-effector twists, but also to understand how end-effector wrenches are related to torques

and forces at the joints.