那么第三个误解就是说 Next, we will talk about the third misunderstanding. 很多老师说 Many lecturers say, 于老师我愿意投入时间 "Mr. Yu, I'd love to spend some time on it, 但是呢我可能投入不了那么多时间 but I don't have very much time to spare." 这就意味着很多老师认为说 This means that many lecturers believe that 一旦做翻转课堂 once they switch to a flipped classroom format, 一旦做混合式教学 and blended teaching, 我和我的学生就会被累得够呛 they and their students will get too exhaustedtired. 学生有那么多时间来做翻转课堂吗 Do students have much time to participate in a flipped classroom? 我老师有那么多时间来准备吗 Do I, as the lecturer, have enough time to prepare for that? 不是这样的 Let me tell you, you don't need to worry about this. 我们刚才反复提到第三个细节 Just now, we have repeatedly mentioned the third detail of blended teaching; 就是Outcomes Based Education that is, Outcome-based Education. 不同的目标 Different goals 就导致你的措施完全不一样 require different measures 就导致你的投入完全不一样 and different inputs. 我以刚才那个大表格里给出的 The table above shows three teaching methods adopted at Tsinghua University. 清华ABC三种模式为例来说明 Let me take them as examples. 比如说我们清华电路原理的A模式 In Method A of the circuit theory course at Tsinghua University, 学生自己选 students can freely select the course. 如果说这个学生觉得电路原理特别重要 If they think the course is very important, 他要玩命学好 and that they should would make efforts to learn it well, 他要用这个来帮助自己成就年级第一 in order to get the best grades in their age group., 或者说训练自己 Oor to receive training hard to 显著提升创新能力的话 to significantly improve their innovation abilities, 他就选A模式吧 then they can would select Method A. 这个A模式他在选之前就会知道 Before they select it, they will know 自己在课外的投入要比传统模式要高很多 their out-of-class input will be much more, 要高一倍以上 perhaps more than double the input of the traditional method. 当然了为了能够实现学生在课堂里面 Of course, in order to make students 思维活跃水平很高 think actively in class, 老师在课前也要进行精心的专业 lecturers need to carefully prepare lessons before class. 所以这种模式老师和学生 So, using this method, lecturers and students 是会被累得够呛的 are sure to get very tired. 它所达成的效果就是说 It's supposed to achieve an outcome whereby 显著地提升了学生的学习成效 the effectiveness of students' learning can be significantly enhanced. 那再比如说B模式 Next, let's talk about Method B. 这些学生不愿意在课外花很多时间 Some students don't want to spend lots of time learning outside of class. 那么我们老师进行精心的设计 Thus, lecturers should design their course more elaborately, 让学生在课外花一点时间 so that students only need to spend a little bit of time learning outside of class 我老师也花一点时间做设计 and leturers themselves can save much more time on designing their course. 具体来讲 Specifically speaking, 比如说用雨课堂工具的时候 if lecturers use the Rain Classroom as a teaching tool 第一次用 每一堂课90分钟 for the first time for a 90-minute class, 老师大概要花到一个小时做教学设计 they will spend about an hour designing their class, 学生针对老师的教学设计 and students will spend around 课外要额外的花20分钟做准备 20 minutes preparing for lessons outside of class. 这个没有花太多时间 It doesn't take them a lot of time, 老师和学生都可以接受 so it's acceptable for both lecturers and students. 那么学生在课堂里面的思维活跃水平 What's more, owing to interactive teaching, 由于交互式提高了 students can think 思维活跃水平就能有所提高 more actively in class. 再比如说我们清华这个C模式 For Method C adopted at Tsinghua University, 学生不需要来教室听课 students are not required to attend lectures in a classroom. 所有的学习完全是在慕课来进行 Instead they can learn every course entirely from MOOCs. 这些学生在慕课平台的学习成绩 Their academic performance on the MOOC platform 占期末总成绩的20分 accounts for 20% of their final grade. 跟AB模式同卷的期中考试 They take the same mid-term and final exams as the students who selected Method A and B. 占期末总成绩的20分 Their mid-term exam accounts for 20% of their final grade 同卷的期末考试占期末总成绩60分 and their final exam accounts for 60% of their final grade. 所以你看 So as you can see, 我们保持着同卷的期中期末考试 all students took the same mid-term and final exams, 命题难度没降低 in which the difficulty level of the questions were was not lowered; 但是我们给学生充分的灵活性 but we gave students enough flexibility, 学生可以完全自主地安排自己的学习 so that they could arrange their studies all by themselves. 我们每学期只给他 In each semester, 6到8次的面对面交流的机会 they only had 6 to 8 opportunities to communicate with each lecturer face to face. 所以你就会发现 As you can see, 这都是不同程度的翻转课堂 these are all different levels of flipped classrooms 这都是不同程度的混合式教学 and blended teaching, 学生和老师的投入完全不一样 in which lecturers and students invest their time and energy in totally different ways. 所以一定不要觉得说 Therefore, it's a misunderstanding that 一旦实施混合式教学 once blended teaching 一旦实施翻转课堂 and a flipped classroom are used, 老师和学生就会被累得够呛 lecturers and students will get too tired. 是不是累得够呛 Whether they get tired 完全取决于你一开始是怎么想的 completely depends on their original decision. 第四个误解 The fourth misunderstanding is that 就是说你用这种非常简单的课堂内推题 simple exercises that lecturers send to students in class 是没法反应学习成效的 can't show reflect the latter's learning effect. 我们一开始也是这么想的 I also thought about this at the beginning. 即使它无法真实地反映学习成效 But even if they can't truly show the learning effect, 学生课堂里面的交互式提高了 students can interact more with their lecturers 学生对老师听课的关注度提高了 and pay more attention in to the lecture, 我们也很高兴 which is also a good thing. 但从实际执行结果来讲不是这样 However, the actual result was way beyond my expectations. 现在屏幕上给出了 As shown on the screen, 我们这个电路原理课 we have calculated the correlation coefficients 在2017年和2018年两年的 between the five parts of performance 每一个学生学这门课程 of each student taking the circuit theory course 五部分成绩之间的相关系数 in 2017 and 2018. 这门课程每一个学生 To get 100 points in their final grade, 要想拿到期末总成绩的100分的话 they needed to 他需要参加五部分内容 take part in five sections during the semester. 期末考试占总成绩的50分 Their final exam grade accounted for 50% of the final grade, 期中考试占总成绩的20分 their mid-term exam grade accounted for 20% of the final grade, 雨课堂课堂内表现占总成绩的15分 their performance in the Rain Classroom accounted for 15% of the final grade, 作业占总成绩的12分 their task performance accounted for 12% of the final grade, 仿真占总成绩的3分 and their performance in their emulation job assignment accounted for 3% of the final grade. 所以我们能够拿到 Using this method, we got 2017年我这个班84个学生 the correlation coefficients between 五部分成绩之间的相关系数 the five parts of the performance of all 84 students in my class in 2017, 我能拿到2018年 and the 155 students 我这个班155个学生 in my class 五部分成绩之间的相关系数 in 2018. 出乎我们意料的是 Exceeding our expectations, 雨课堂表现和期中期末 the correlation coefficients between each student's performance in 这三者之间的相关系数 the Rain Classroom, the mid-term exam and the final exam 都是大于0.6的都是强相关的 were higher than 0.6, meaning the three parts of each student's performance were strongly correlated. 但是作业和期中期末的相关系数 However, the correlation coefficients between each student's performance in the after-class task, the mid-term exam and the final exam 都是比较低的 were relatively low. 是0.4 0.3 最高也就0.5 They were only 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 at most, 构不成强相关 meaning the three parts of each student's performance were not strongly correlated. 为什么会这样 Why would this happen? 难度差很远 After all, after-class tasks are much more difficult than in-class exercises. 雨课堂都是很简单的题 Questions in the Rain Classroom's exercises are very easy, 而作业的题的难度 while questions in the after-class tasks 都跟期中期末考试类似 are almost as difficult as those in the mid-term and final exams. 为什么雨课堂跟期中期末强相关 Why is the Rain Classroom strongly related to the mid-term and final exams, 而作业仅仅是中相关 while the after-class task is only moderately related to the mid-term and final exams? 非常重要的一点是 One of the major reasons is that 学生平时做作业是不限时的 students can complete after-class tasks without a time limit. 据我所知我的一百多个学生里边 As I know, there are over 100 students in my class. 每次做作业 For completing each assignment,Some spend an hour 做一个小时的有 and some spend four an hours 做四个小时的也有 some spend four hours.completing their after-class tasks. 这当然我们无所谓 For us lecturers, timeit doesn't matter at all. 只要你最后做对了我们都给成绩 We will give points as long as studentsto whoever answers our questions correctly in the end. 但是期中期末是限时的 However, students must finish the mid-term and final exams within a time limit. 我们期中考试是一个半小时 The mid-term exam lasts 1.5 hours 期末考试是两个小时 and the final exam lasts 2 hours. 而雨课堂课内推题也是限时的 The students must finish the Rain Classroom exercises within a time limit too. 也可以是半分钟 It can be half a minute, 也可以是一分钟也可以是两分钟 a minute, or even two minutes. 虽然是简单题 Though the exercises are easy to do, 但是要求学生在课堂内 students are required to give the right answers 比较高的压力下限时提交正确答案 under high pressure and within a given time during class. 从这个意义上来讲 In this sense, 它的这个场景 students completing exercises in the Rain Classroom 跟学生参加期中考试和期末考试 is similar to when they takinge 是类似的 the mid-term and final exams. 所以从这个意义上来讲 So we can conclude that 如果说你大量的题 if you send a large number of questions to students, 比如说我们一个学期 for instance, we can 用雨课堂推题会推140道题 give them 140 questions in the Rain Classroom during in each one semester, 大量的题每个题都用限时提交的模式 and they must answer each question within a limited time. 它就帮助学生 In this case the Rain Classroom can help them 实时的来建构一个期中期末考试 construct a real-time scenario where they must give the right answers 限时提交正确答案的这么一个场景 within a limited time, just like when they take the mid-term and final exams. 所以可以看出虽然是简单题 So, although the questions are simple, 只要你量大只要你限时 they can still truly reflect the students' learning effect can be truly reflected, 它就能够在平时真实地反映 as long as they questions are large in number and 学生的学习成效 answered within a time limit. 所以说做简单题无法反映学习成效 In this sense, the opinion that simple questions can't reflect students' learning effect 是站不住脚的 is untenable. 我今天这个课仔细的讨论了 Today, we have fully discussed 三个细节和四个误区 three points and four misunderstandings of blended teaching. 这是我从2014年开始起 Here is some feedback I got from other lecturers 做混合式教学经常遇到的 since I started using 老师们的反馈 blended teaching in 2014. 当然我也热切地期待着各位老师 Of course, I'm eagerly anticipating that 在看这个视频以后 after watching this video, 在讨论区里给出你的反馈 you will give your feedback in the forum 你觉得更重要的细节 and share with us some more important details and your opinions 你觉得更常见的误区是什么 about more common misunderstandings of blended teaching, 帮助我们实施改进这个课程 so that you canto help us implement and improve this course. 谢谢大家 Thank you very much.