课程信息
The Origins course tracks the origin of all things – from the Big Bang to the origin of the Solar System and the Earth. The course follows the evolution of life on our planet through deep geological time to present life forms.
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100% 在线课程

立即开始,按照自己的计划学习。
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完成时间大约为28 小时

建议:5-7 hours/week
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English

字幕:English
Globe

100% 在线课程

立即开始,按照自己的计划学习。
Clock

完成时间大约为28 小时

建议:5-7 hours/week
Comment Dots

English

字幕:English

Syllabus - What you will learn from this course

1

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Origin of the Elements, the Solar System and the Planets

In the first module of Origins Jim Connelly and Henning Haack go through the evolution that resulted in the Solar System with the planets that we know today. Jim will tell you about how the elements of the periodic table were formed. Without these elements there would be no Solar System, no planets and no life at all. We have added a couple of more videos that we hope you will also find interesting. One gives you an introduction to Geological time. Videos 1.7-1.9 deals with some of our most interesting meteorites from the collections at the Natural History Museum of Denmark. Much of the evidence for the theories presented in Module 1 has been obtained from meteorites. ...
Reading
11 videos (Total 85 min), 2 readings, 1 quiz
Video11 videos
Introduction to time lines – Henning Haack3m
1.1 Nucleosynthesis: the origin of elements in our Solar System - Part 1 – Jim Connelly11m
1.2 Nucleosynthesis: the origin of elements in our Solar System - Part 2 – Jim Connelly9m
1.3 Origin of the Elements, the Solar System and the Planets - Origin of the Solar System – Henning Haack9m
1.4 Origin of the Elements, the Solar System and the Planets - Meteorites – Henning Haack17m
1.5 Origin of the Elements, the Solar System and the Planets - Mars and the Moon – Henning Haack18m
1.6 Origin of the Elements, the Solar System and the Planets - Exoplanets – Henning Haack2m
1.7 The Worlds Largest Meteorite Slice – Henning Haack4m
1.8 Allende - A World Famous Meteorite – Henning Haack2m
1.9 Imilac - An Exceptionally Beautiful Meteorite Slice – Henning Haack1m
Reading2 readings
Lecturers10m
Recommended resources – Module 110m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 122m

2

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

The early Earth and origin of life

In this module we are going to have a look at our own planet, just after it formed. Emily Pope will introduce you to the most important geological principles and processes that characterize our Earth. This should make it easier for you to understand how we use geology to reconstruct the evolution of our planet and the life forms that inhabit it. With such tools in hand, Emily will take you on a tour back in deep geological time and tell you about the earliest evolution of our planet and the oldest evidence for life on Earth. We will also take you on a trip to Greenland where Minik Rosing will show the rocks in which he found the oldest evidence for life on Earth. ...
Reading
6 videos (Total 98 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video6 videos
2.2 The early Earth and origin of life - Geologic Time and the Origin of Earth - Emily Pope15m
2.3 The early Earth and origin of life - Finding Evidence for the Origin of Life - Emily Pope19m
2.4 The early Earth and origin of life - How to Make Life (or at Least a Best Guess) - Emily Pope 15m
2.5 The early Earth and origin of life - Geology of the Precambrian: The Mantle and Crust - Emily Pope15m
2.6 The early Earth and origin of life - Geology of the Precambrian: The Hydrosphere and Atmosphere - Emily Pope17m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 210m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 220m

3

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Origin of the microbial world / The Cambrian Explosion and Exceptional Preservation

In this module Jan Audun Rasmussen and Danny Eibye-Jacobsen will show you how life evolved during the first 4 billion years since the creation of the Earth. As you will see, it is very challenging to study the oldest life forms of our planet. During this enormous time span – which covers about 80% of the Earth’s history – microbial life slowly evolved to form a crucial component of the biosphere. Toward the end of the period the deepest foundations of the different groups of animals evolved. All of the life forms surrounding us today can be traced back to this time. ...
Reading
8 videos (Total 100 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video8 videos
3.2 Origin of the microbial world: Part 2 - Jan Audun Rasmussen12m
3.3 Origin of the microbial world: Part 3 - Jan Audun Rasmussen13m
3.4 Origin of the microbial world: Part 4 - Jan Audun Rasmussen 9m
3.5 Origin of the Metazoans and evolution of life at small scale - Danny Eibye-Jacobsen15m
3.6 The Cambrian Explosion and exceptional preservation: Part 1 - Danny Eibye-Jacobsen12m
3.7 The Cambrian Explosion and exceptional preservation: Part 2 - Danny Eibye-Jacobsen12m
3.8 The Cambrian Explosion and exceptional preservation: Part 3 - Danny Eibye-Jacobsen6m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 310m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 320m

4

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Transition from Microbial to Macrobial Life: Snowball Earth and the Ediacara Biota / Eukaryotic Evolution and the Phylogeny of All Life

In this module, we take a closer look at how the physical and biological conditions that made the Cambrian Explosion possible arose. In the first lectures Svend Stouge will tell you about the dramatic consequences of climate changes seen toward the end of the Precambrian. Geological evidence supports the idea that the Earth was completely covered in ice during periods that we, for obvious reasons, refer to as Snowball Earth. In the remaining lectures Martin Sørensen will tell you about one of the most significant building blocks of life on Earth – the cell – and how the early bacterial cells evolved and became capable of forming the huge variety of life that we see today. Martin Sørensen will also show how different evolutionary trends of cells resulted in six major organism groups, of which several gave rise to multicellular life. ...
Reading
7 videos (Total 73 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video7 videos
4.2 Transition from microbial to macrobial life: Snowball Earth and the Ediacara Biota - Part 2 - Svend Stouge13m
4.3 Eukaryotic Evolution and the Phylogeny of All Life - The Transition from the Prokaryotic to the Eukaryotic Cell and the Endosymbiont Theory - Martin V. Sørensen11m
4.4 Eukaryotic Evolution and the Phylogeny of All Life - The Eukaryotic Tree of Life and the Six Super Kingdoms: Archaeplastida - Martin V. Sørensen7m
4.5 Eukaryotic Evolution and the Phylogeny of All Life - The Six Super Kingdoms: Excavata and Rhizaria - Martin V. Sørensen7m
4.6 Eukaryotic Evolution and the Phylogeny of All Life - The Six Super Kingdoms: Chromalveolata - Martin V. Sørensen5m
4.7 Eukaryotic Evolution and the Phylogeny of All Life - The Six Super Kingdoms: Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta - Martin V. Sørensen 7m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 410m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 420m

5

Section
Clock
1 hour to complete

Origin of the marine Cambrian and Palaeozoic Evolutionary Faunas / Diversity in deep time / Origin of predation and the Mesozoic Arms race

In module 5, Arne Thorshøj Nielsen and Jan Audun Rasmussen will show you how the higher life forms, particularly the marine animals, evolved in the oceans, after the sudden appearance of a hard skeleton in many different animal groups during the Cambrian Explosion 540 My ago. You will be introduced to the changing major evolutionary faunas through time, and also see how clever strategies to kill or avoid being killed, major extinction events and many other factors controlled the evolution that eventually resulted in the modern marine faunas. ...
Reading
5 videos (Total 48 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video5 videos
5.2 Ancient biodiversity: Origin of the Palaeozoic Evolutionary Fauna - Arne Thorshøj Nielsen 10m
5.3 Ancient biodiversity: Origin of the Modern Evolutionary Fauna - Part 1 - Jan Audun Rasmussen9m
5.4 Ancient biodiversity: Origin of the Modern Evolutionary Fauna: Part 2 - Jan Audun Rasmussen7m
5.5 Ancient biodiversity: Origin of predation and the Mesozoic Arms Race - Jan Audun Rasmussen11m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 510m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 520m

6

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Oxygenation and Animals

In module 6 Tais Wittchen Dahl will take a detailed look at one of the most important factors controlling the evolution of life - oxygen. In the previous lectures you have already heard that the oxygen levels have changed in the past. Tais will show you what the mechanisms behind changes in global oxygen levels are and what are the most important consequences. One of the amazing possible consequences was that during the Carboniferous, dragonflies had wing spans of up to 75 cms! Higher oxygen levels not only allowed for the evolution of higher life forms, it may also have limited the size of insects and predatory fish, and ultimately furthered the evolution of intelligent life. Without the increase in oxygen, it would be impossible for us to understand the lectures in this course! ...
Reading
3 videos (Total 64 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video3 videos
6.2 Oxygenation and Animals: Evidence for O2 levels on Early Earth - Tais Wittchen Dahl 21m
6.3 Oxygenation and Animals: Feedbacks between life and O2 - Tais Wittchen Dahl20m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 610m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 618m

7

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Origins and Early Development of Plants / The Origin and Diversification of Flowering Plants

In module 7, we will have a closer look at the biggest source of oxygen – the plants. Up till now we have heard a lot about the evolution of higher life forms in the oceans. While evolution took a giant step forward in the oceans, the continents remained totally barren for another approx. 100 million years. Vivi Vajda from the Lund University in Sweden and Gitte Petersen will tell you how the plants began to inhabit the terrestrial environment, thus paving the way for other life forms living on land. Land plants have managed to adapt to a very different environment, with new challenges and possibilities. Some of the early plants have survived as fossils – whereas others are still alive. Some of these living fossils will be presented in the videos. We will also have a close look at the biggest group of plants – which has evolved in close collaboration with insects, birds and even some mammals – the flowering plants....
Reading
6 videos (Total 70 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video6 videos
7.2 Origin and early development of plants: Ferns - Vivi Vajda6m
7.3 Origin and early development of plants: Conifers - Vivi Vajda6m
7.4 The origin and diversification of flowering plants: The Origin - Gitte Petersen15m
7.5 The origin and diversification of flowering plants: Diversification of Flowering Plants - Gitte Petersen 16m
7.6 The origin and diversification of flowering plants: The Impact of Flowering Plants on Earth - Gitte Petersen 11m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 710m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 720m

8

Section
Clock
1 hour to complete

The Evolution of Insects and their Role in Terrestrial Ecosystems

In module 8, Lars Vilhelmsen will take a close look at the insects which account for more than 50% of today’s biodiversity and biomass. Part of the story behind the success of the insects is their remarkable adaption to a wide range of environments. Insects mastered powered flight early in their evolution, and also developed highly specialized relationships with land plants almost from the start. Different insects feed on almost everything: various plant parts, nectar, blood from vertebrates, or other insects. Other remarkable types of specializations are found in social insects that act as a single organism, capable of performing highly complex tasks, such as farming. ...
Reading
4 videos (Total 29 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video4 videos
8.2 The evolution of insects and their role in terrestrial ecosystems: Paleozoic winged insect - Lars Bjørn Vilhelmsen 9m
8.3 The evolution of insects and their role in terrestrial ecosystems: The Rise of the Holometabolan Insects - Lars Bjørn Vilhelmsen 5m
8.4 The evolution of insects and their role in terrestrial ecosystems: Insects and Flowering Plants - Lars Bjørn Vilhelmsen 7m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 810m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 810m

9

Section
Clock
3 hours to complete

Colonization of the continents and the Origin of the Dinosaurs and Birds/Mass Extinction Events and Their Causes

In module 9, we will explore how vertebrates colonized dry land. Jesper Milàn will tell you about how this happened and give you examples of some of the first vertebrates that gradually adapted to a life on land. In the following lecture Gilles Cuny will tell you about how the early primitive vertebrates evolved into the highly diverse groups that we see today. He will show you many interesting examples of our distant relatives and discuss many of the processes, which we believe controlled their evolution and diversification. One of the important factors driving evolution is mass extinction events. Gilles will introduce you to the topic and Bent Lindow will give you a detailed look at mass extinction events. What were the causes, what happened and what were the consequences? Many questions remain unanswered but one thing is certain – mass extinctions have had a great impact on the evolution of life on Earth. Without mass extinctions life would have evolved in a completely different way and humans, like most other recent species, would not be here. ...
Reading
8 videos (Total 132 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video8 videos
9.2 Origin of the dinosaurs and birds: Mammals versus Dinosaurs - Gilles Cuny16m
9.3 Origin of the dinosaurs and birds: The end-Triassic Mass Extinction - Gilles Cuny15m
9.4 Origin of the dinosaurs and birds: Birds are Dinosaurs - Gilles Cuny19m
9.5 Mass Extinction Events and Their Causes Part 1 - Bent Lindow14m
9.6 Mass Extinction Events and Their Causes Part 2 - Bent Lindow17m
9.7 Mass Extinction Events and Their Causes Part 3 - Bent Lindow19m
9.8 Mass Extinction Events and Their Causes: The Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction Part 4 - Bent Lindow15m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 910m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 922m

10

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Origin of Recent Climate Change / The Molecular Clock

In module 10, we will tell you about two very different topics – recent climate changes and the molecular clock. Michael Houmark will tell you about the changes in global climate over the past 50 million years. During this period the warm temperatures in the Eocene were gradually replaced by the much lower, present day temperatures. Michael will show you how much better records of sea level, temperature, CO2, volcanic activity, and continental drift in the recent past allow us to piece together a detailed picture of these dramatic changes in Earth’s climate. Our records of recent climate change also allow us to better understand the processes controlling the climate on short, medium, and long time scales. Ole Seberg will tell you about the molecular clock. This is a new technique, which has significantly improved our understanding of the evolution of life on our planet. Looking at molecular data of present species, we can not only determine how closely the species are related to each other, we can also estimate the age of their common ancestors. ...
Reading
9 videos (Total 82 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video9 videos
10.2 Origin of Recent climate change: The changing face of the Earth - Michael Houmark-Nielsen4m
10.3 Origin of Recent climate change: The green house world around the North Atlantic - Michael Houmark-Nielsen 4m
10.4 Origin of Recent climate change: Drifting towards the ice house - Michael Houmark-Nielsen3m
10.5 Origin of Recent climate change: On the door step of the ice house - Michael Houmark-Nielsen 3m
10.6 Origin of Recent climate change: The ice house world of the Pleistocene - Michael Houmark-Nielsen7m
10.7 The Molecular Clock: Discovery of the Molecular Clock Part 1 - Ole Seberg 16m
10.8 The Molecular Clock: Phylogeny and Molecular Data Part 2 - Ole Seberg 16m
10.9 The Molecular Clock: Explanations Part 3 - Ole Seberg15m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 1010m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 1016m

11

Section
Clock
1 hour to complete

Primate Origins and Evolution / Human Origins and Evolution

Finally, we have come to the evolution of the primates – the group to which humans belong. Bent Lindow tells you about the evolution of primates, leading up to the early humans. Bent will also introduce you to a web-based exercise called “The Human Animal” (http://snm.ku.dk/english/school_services/human_animal/). In this exercise you will explore skulls of living as well as extinct hominids. Apart from the exercise itself the “Human animal” includes some background reading material and some interesting videos. Included is footage from the dissection of a dead chimpanzee from a Danish Zoo; do not watch this if you think it will make you uncomfortable. In order to do the exercise you need a computer with a mouse (since you need to measure distances in 3D between different parts of the skulls that you will be studying). It will not run on iPads and iPhones. Finally, Tom Gilbert will tell you about how the early modern humans (Homo sapiens) managed to colonize almost every land mass of our planet. Although many details of our own evolution still remain obscure, recent advances in genomics have given us a much better understanding of how extant humans colonized the entire planet after leaving their original home in Africa. ...
Reading
6 videos (Total 50 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video6 videos
11.2 Primate Systematics: Primates, Origins and Evolution Part 2 - Bent Lindow13m
11.3 Primate Systematics: Human Evolution Assignment Part 3 - Bent Lindow3m
11.4 Human Origins and Evolution: The Global Dispersal of Anatomically Modern Humans - Tom Gilbert7m
11.5 Human Origins and Evolution: Leaving Africa - Tom Gilbert5m
11.6 Human Origins and Evolution: Multiple dispersals from Africa - Tom Gilbert8m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 1110m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 1114m

12

Section
Clock
2 hours to complete

Modern Diversity

In the last set of lectures we will look at the modern biodiversity. There is an enormous difference between the biodiversity of different types of habitats on our planet – from the equator to the arctic, from deserts to rainforests, and from isolated islands like the Galapagos to large continents. Jon Fjeldså will take you on a trip around the planet and give you many interesting examples of these variations. He will explain how we can use them to get a better understanding of how evolution works. This concludes the Origins course. Thank you for following it, we hope it has enhanced your understanding of how life evolved and diversified on our planet, and that it will inspire you to see natural phenomena in a new light. ...
Reading
8 videos (Total 89 min), 1 reading, 1 quiz
Video8 videos
12.2 Modern diversity: Part 2 - Jon Fjeldså13m
12.3 Modern diversity: Part 3 - Jon Fjeldså 10m
12.4 Modern diversity: Part 4 - Jon Fjeldså12m
12.5 Modern diversity: Part 5 - Jon Fjeldså 12m
12.6 Modern diversity: Part 6 - Jon Fjeldså 6m
12.7 Modern diversity: Part 7 - Jon Fjeldså 17m
12.8 Modern diversity: Part 8 - Jon Fjeldså 7m
Reading1 readings
Recommended resources – Module 1210m
Quiz1 practice exercises
Quiz 1210m
4.7
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Briefcase

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Top Reviews

By ABAug 29th 2016

I enjoyed the course. It was a steep learning curve. Only one suggestion. The reading material is all mentioned in week 1, it would be easier to work with if it was mentioned per week.

By DDMar 30th 2016

A lot of information, a comprehensive view of earth's history. A minucious 'making-off' of present environment and biodiversity of our planet. Very informative and entertaining.

Instructors

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Henning Haack

Associate Professor
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Vivi Vajda

Professor
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Jon Fjeldså

Professor, Curator
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Michael Houmark-Nielsen

Associate Professor
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Gilles Guy Roger Cuny

Associate Professor
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Ole Seberg

Associate Professor
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Gitte Petersen

Associate Professor
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Tais Wittchen Dahl

Assistant Professor of Geobiology
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Arne Thorshøj Nielsen

Associate Professor
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Martin Vinther Sørensen

Associate Professor, Curator
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Svend Stouge

Associate Professor
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Danny Eibye Jacobsen

Associate Professor, Curator
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Jan Audun Rasmussen

Associate Professor
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Emily Catherine Pope

Assistant professor

About University of Copenhagen

The University of Copenhagen is the oldest University in Denmark - founded in 1479, and with over 38,000 students and more than 9,000 employees. The purpose of the University is to conduct research and provide education to the highest academic level. Based in Denmark's capital city it is one of the top research institutions in Europe. ...

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