学习必需的技术技能，从而掌握分析财务报表和披露财务信息用于财务分析的能力，并了解会计标准和高管层激励对财务报告流程的影响。学完本课程后，您将学会阅读三种最常见的财务报表：利润表、资产负债表和现金收支一览表。然后，您可以运用所学技能处理现实商务挑战，这也是沃顿商学院商务基础专项课程的组成部分。

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From the course by University of Pennsylvania

财务会计概论（中文版）

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学习必需的技术技能，从而掌握分析财务报表和披露财务信息用于财务分析的能力，并了解会计标准和高管层激励对财务报告流程的影响。学完本课程后，您将学会阅读三种最常见的财务报表：利润表、资产负债表和现金收支一览表。然后，您可以运用所学技能处理现实商务挑战，这也是沃顿商学院商务基础专项课程的组成部分。

From the lesson

第 4 周: 比率分析

我们本周要进行期末考试。 因为考试原因，我将在本周介绍比率分析，其中不会涉及任何“新”材料。 课上将定义和讨论一系列的财务比率指标，基本上就是一个财务指标除以另一个得到的。 但是要深入理解资产负债表和利润表就需要分析这些财务比率。 同时，我们将通过一些财务比率分析视频复习之前学习的材料，帮助各位准备考试。 不过考试中没有关于财务比率分析的题目。 等考试完，您就可以用您丰富的财务会计知识去向您的家人、朋友和同事炫耀啦！

- Brian J BusheeThe Geoffrey T. Boisi Professor

Accounting

Hello, I'm Professor Brian Bushee.

Welcome back.

In this video, we're going to do a ratio analysis on the 3M Company, the company

who's financial statements we've been following along with this entire course.

Let's get started.

So here we are at 3M's financial statement,

so there's a couple ways we could do the ratios.

We could take all the numbers in the income statement and

in the balance sheet that we need, and also from the cash flow statement.

Put them in a spreadsheet or put them in our calculator, and calculate the ratios.

A second way we could do it is try to look the ratios up on the internet.

Why don't we do the second?

Before we jump on the internet to pull some ratios, a quick warning.

There's a lot of bad stuff on the internet.

Hopefully you aren't thinking that this course is one of those bad things.

But the problem with ratios provided on the internet is often times,

the provider does not give you the definitions.

You don't know how they're calculating the ratios.

So my advice is find one source that you trust, so they seem to use the same

ratios that you would get doing it by hand and then always use that source so

at least the ratios will always have consistent definitions.

So one of the best sources on the web that I found to get ratios is Morningstar.

Because they give you a long time series of ratios that you can use.

So if we look at 3M company's page,

there are some summary financial information, and then key ratios.

So we've got right here return on equity.

So that's our starting point in the DuPont formula.

You notice it's sort of been going down the last few years slightly.

We can look at the components.

Here's financial leverage going down, so they're becoming less levered over time.

Return on assets.

Up and then down again.

So a little bit more volatility with return on assets.

Then you can look at return on assets going into asset turnover and

what they call net margin percentage is what I called return on sales.

It's the profitability and you can see the profitability up and

then sort of down again which is tracking what we saw with our ROA.

And asset turnover has been up and down as well.

What we really need is to find three or four of 3M's closest competitors.

And then compare these ratios to the competitors to see whether

these trends are specific to 3M.

Or whether there's some kind of industry effect that's going on.

But based on my knowledge of the industry,

these are still pretty healthy ROE and ROA numbers.

And then above, we have the profit margin break down.

So we have gross margin which is really high, almost 50%.

SGN8 is sales which has been fairly flat.

And operating margin, you also get R&D to sales,

since it is a company that does R&D.

And so we get to see the profitability margin ratios as well.

In case you're wondering, the TTM column on the far right, that stands for trail in

12 months, so that's the last 12 months before the day of the ratio calculation.

Then there's a tab for some growth percentages, so this is just year on year,

three year average, five year average, ten year average, growth and

revenue operating income, net income earnings per share.

Similar numbers for growth in cash flow.

Financial health this is essentially the common size balance sheet for 3M.

And then down below we have our old friends, the quick and current ratio.

3M is in really good shape, current ratio above 2, quick ratio above 1.3, 1.4.

Financial leverage, which we saw earlier.

And then a more traditional debt to equity ratio.

Looks like 3M is not a very risky company, not very highly levered.

Then there's efficiency ratios.

So here we have days sales outstanding, days inventory, and days payable.

So we can see there's a slight downward trend in 3M's day sales outstanding.

Their receivables or inventory turnover has been sort of steady between 75,

85 days.

And their payables ratio similar.

What they call cash conversion cycle is what I was calling the net trade cycle, so

it's basically the number of days you'd have to borrow from a bank.

And then if you want to look at the ratios the other way, they are receivables,

turnovers, inventory turnover, fixed asset turnover, and asset turnover.

And then one more thing to show you is Morningstar has a extensive glossary.

So if you don't know what any of these terms are,

like one ratio we didn't talk about is return on invested capital.

That's net income divided by stockholder's equity plus long term debt and

capital leases, short term debt, capital leases.

So basically it's like ROE except that it also adds debt into the denominator.

So you could just pull the ratios from a source like this.

Pull them from three or four competitors and then do the comparisons and you

don't have to use your own calculator or spreadsheet to calculate all these ratios.

And that's a wrap on our weeklong look at ratio analysis.

Now it's time for you to focus on the exam.

Good luck and I'll see you on the other side.

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